Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
Population: 75,507,308 (2013 estimate)
Location: Central Africa
- It is estimated 1000 rapes happen a day in the DRC (2011 report)
- 40,000 rapes were reported between 1998-2004 (Amnesty report)
- Rape against men and women has been reported
- The war has also been called “a war against women” (Braeckman, in Turner, 2007:3), due to the high number of female deaths and the atrocious treatment of women by all fighting groups.
- In a recent study, one in three men admitted to committing sexual violence (2013).
Tearfund research showed that:
- Sexual violence is rife, ongoing, and targeting all women (and some men), regardless of age or ethnicity.
- Sexual violence is generally very violent, resulting in extensive physical trauma.
- While perpetrators are mostly fighters, civilians also commit SV and perpetrators are rarely caught, prosecuted or punished.
- SV survivors experience large-scale rejection and stigmatisation, by partner, family and community and receive very little support of any form.
- While the research participants believe that the church can play an important role in addressing SV and its consequences, it is currently not doing so.
Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo
The war within the DRC has been compared to the Second World War and the holocaust (Turner, 2007:2), mainly because of the large number of deaths due to the war. Its death toll from 1997 to 2001 has been estimated at 3,8 million (Turner, 2007:2), although various estimates between 900,000 and 5.4 million have been offered (Butty, 2010).
In 1996 armed forces invaded the DRC via the province of South Kivu. While the invasion ostentatiously started as a local attempt to oust Hutu militias who had fled their after the Rwandan genocide, the invading group soon declared themselves the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL) and continued to infiltrate the DRC. The AFDL included four groups that opposed the current Mobutu regime and one of their leaders was Laurent Kabila. Rwanda, it has been said, used these local groups “to provide a (Congolese) face for what was in fact an invasion” (Turner, 2007:4-5).
The AFDL was successful and in May 1997 Mobutu fled and Kabila became president. But quickly his relationship with his international and national support base deteriorated. Thus, in 1998, there was an attempt to overthrow Kabila, which led to a second war. In 2001 Kabila was assassinated and his son – Joseph – became president. He called for peace talks and 2002 a ceasefire agreement was signed by all parties involved in the war (Turner, 2007: 5-8).
Some see these two wars as civil wars; others see them as international wars because of Rwandan, Ugandan and other international involvement at various levels (Turner, 2007:8). The fact remains that the DRC is not yet at peace. Especially North and South Kivu have frequent outbreaks of fighting, with many different rebel groups still present and fighting within the region. The UN peacekeeping envoy, MANUC, is still present, although its withdrawal is planned.
While peace was officially declared in the DRC in 2002, fighting is still continuing.
What the church is doing?
Churches in Eastern DRC have been supporting survivors with care and support over the years, however often the churches themselves have little training and resources to offer substantial support.
In February 2013, a chapter of ‘We Will Speak Out’ will launch in DRC to bring together church leaders, relief agencies, NGOs and UN agencies to work together on a collective church response to sexual violence.
Plans are also underway to pilot a programme looking at the cultural and society ideas surrounding masculinity and how changes in this can prevent sexual violence and enable men and boys to speak out openly against sexual violence.
Latest news from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
Faith Community Must Shout for an End to Sexual Violence
Why the faith community need to speak out about sexual violence
UN Security Council – Resolution 2106
UN Security Council votes unanimously for Resolution 2106 – prevention of sexual violence in conflict.
In memory of Lyn Lusi
A dear friend, Mrs Lyn Lusi, co-founder and former Programme Manager with HEAL Africa passed away over the weekend. Lyn was an inspirational women who touched the lives of so […]
False images of Masculinity lead to SV
The Guardian Newspaper, UK February 24, 2012
Report on SV singles out worst offenders in conflict
UN Report published – February 23, 2012
HEAL Africa – Overview
Overview of HEAL Africa in the Religion & Ethics News Weekly – February 2012
The stigma of rape – Christian Today
By Charlene Winkel January 30, 2012
Government troops blamed for mass rape
UN report: Congo government troops blamed for mass rape (July 2011)